The submerged hornwort, also called swimming hornwort or thorny hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), is a species of aquatic plants (perennials) of the Ceratophyllaceae family, with stems devoid of root. The common name "cornifle" would come from the word horn [ref. desired].
In the natural environment, a few leaves turn into root-like organs (rhizoids) that fix the stems to the ground1.
The species is relatively ubiquitous, tolerating temperatures of 10 to 30 ° C, and a pH of 6 to 9.
Ceratophyllum demersum does not have a root, it can be planted in the background in the ground or it can be left floating. It is a plant recommended to fight against algae because it absorbs the nutrients contained in the water and secretes several allelopathic substances (soluble in water for some and in lipids for others) inhibiting the growth of some Filamentous13 or Chroococcales13 type cyanobacteria.
It quickly forms dense clumps and provides many refuges for fry or timid fish. Its rapid growth and the production of numerous lateral branches also make it an excellent food for herbivorous fish. Its color varies depending on the iron intake, light intensity and temperature. Variety must also be taken into account, such as Ceratophyllum demersum var Foxtail [archive], whose polymorphism and color are very variable.
Propagation: cutting from side branches
Water: temperature between 18 and 22 ° C, the pH between 6 and 7.5 and the hardness between 1 and 18 ° GH
Growth: fast, 10 to 20 cm per week.
Aquarium: suitable for both small (<35 cm) and large aquariums (> 45 cm).